99/100 of center lock race stuff have now integrated safety system that works when the air gun is puch onto the hubb !! no need to take off with one hand any pin or watever needleQuestion:
Pit crews obviously use some kind of air ratchet to take theirs on and off.
Are they calibrated somehow? No torque wrench to get it 'just right'.
Never seen a wheel fall off during a race, so whatever they do seems to work.
99/100 of these airguns are manufactured in Italy by a company named Paoli and they are built for this purpose only ; there are left and right gun and each one can do the torque only on this way so youcan't use one to the wrong side
Then each team set the pressure for the nitrogen bottle in order to reach the torque asked by ingineer or manufacturer of special nuts ( mostly now an Austrian brand named Pankle)
99/100 of these nuts are now steel ( no more aluminium !!they sized quickly after 2/3 changes!!) and their thread is protected with a very very secret coat coming from aerospace industry and able to lubricate this strong and speed "screwing" onto the male thread
Just for information those specific airgun cost from 3500 to 4500 $ and each nut ( depending on the manufacturer and coating ) is more or less 350$ and last one week end
And the little sytem included into the center of hubb is about 1000 $ of machinig parts !!
When you watch on tv some F1 or prototype loosing a wheel at a100/100 is because during the change the mecanic did a wrong movment loosing the nut and puches the airgun like a "blind" robot without checking he was srewing something to the hubb!!!!!